The Arabic language permeated the region at this time. This line, which ruled from Baghdad, was less tolerant of religious differences.
Pompey brought Roman rule to the region in 63 Damascus surrendered to Muslim troops in 635; by 640 the conquest was complete.
Four districts, Damascus, Hims, Jordan, and Palestine, were created, and relative peace and prosperity, as well as religious toleration, were the hallmark of the Umayyad line, which ruled the region for a century.
Nomads and semi-nomads live in the huge desert steppe in the far east of the country.
Syria was the name of an ancient territory, a strip of fertile land that lay between the eastern Mediterranean coast and the desert of Northern Arabia.
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Modern Syria is an Arab republic of southwest Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east and southeast, Jordan to the south, and by Israel and Lebanon to the southwest.Only about half of the land can support the population, and half of the population resides in cities.The coastal plains are the most heavily populated, with the cultivated steppe to the east providing wheat for the country.British and Free French troops occupied the country until 1946, when a Syrian civilian government took over.There were manifold challenges for such a government, including the reconciliation of a number of religious groups.With the massacre of Christians by a Muslim mob in Damascus in 1860, Europe began to intervene more in the affairs of the moribund Ottoman Empire, establishing an autonomous district of Lebanon, but leaving Syria for the time under Ottoman control.