We examined the hypothesis that individual red hinds, Epinephelus guttatus, evaluate future reproductive success and the best time to change sex from information available only within the annual spawning aggregation.
The sex ratio within the aggregation, 4.9 females per male, differed significantly from the sex ratio of 10.9 in inshore areas outside of the aggregation period.Individuals within the aggregation were significantly larger overall than individuals in inshore areas.In 2007, Manchester band The Longcut recorded a version as part of their double A-Side release on Melodic Records "Florence and the Machine" version was released 16 November 2009, from the acclaimed album "Lungs".This version of the track was used on the series finale of the CW drama series Gossip Girl "New York, I Love You XOXO". Macroscopic and histological examination of gonads confirmed that, although mature, ripe ovaries are found over a three-month period, spawning activity is limited to about 2 weeks each year.
Females are determinate spawners and individuals are able to spawn more than once during the course of the annual spawning season.
The red hind is protogynous and 50% maturity is attained at 215 mm fork length.
In western Puerto Rico, spawning occurs in aggregations at several sites within loosely defined areas located towards the edge of the insular platform.
The short-term, localized, nature of spawning aggregations renders species with this reproductive mode particularly vulnerable to fishing pressure at spawning sites.
Aggregating species, therefore, may require special management consideration.
Sex ratios of individuals taken by hook and line at one of the aggregation areas over a consecutive six-year period, suggest considerable intra-and inter-annual variation most likely attributable to a combination of differential ingress and egress by males and females during the course of an aggregation and to fluctuations in recruitment, differential mortality by sex and sex change among years.